The patient has the right to reasonably informed participation in decisions involving his/her health care. To the degree possible, this shall be based on a clear, concise explanation of his/her condition and of all proposed technical procedures, including the possibilities of any risk of mortality or serious side effects, problems related to recuperation, and probability of success. The patient shall not be subjected to any procedure without his/her voluntary, competent, and informed consent, or that of his/her legally authorized representative. Where medically significant alternatives for care or treatment exist, the patient shall be so informed.
The patient has the right to know who is responsible for authorizing and performing the procedures or treatment.
The patient shall be informed if the clinician proposes to engage in or perform human experimentation or other research/educational projects affecting his/her care or treatment, and the patient shall sign an informed consent if participation is desired and maintains the right to refuse to participate or withdraw from any such activity at any time.
The patient may refuse treatment to the extent permitted by law. When refusal of treatment by the patient or his/her legally authorized representative prevents the provision of appropriate care in accordance with ethical and professional standards, the relationship with the patient may be terminated upon reasonable notice.
If a patient is unconscious or is determined to be mentally incompetent and no consent can be obtained from an appropriate family member, legal action may be taken to obtain a court order for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In life-threatening emergencies, where the patient is incompetent or unconscious, appropriate treatment may be administered without consent.